Eagleby State School had its beginnings as a small building located on Eagleby Road about a kilometre from its present location. Eagleby Provisional School, as it was known, opened in 1906. It became a State School in 1909 and closed in 1966. That first building is still standing as a private home on Eagleby Road. The school reopened in its current location on 25 January 1988.
Eagleby State School is located midway between the tourist capital of the Gold Coast and the state capital of Queensland, Brisbane. That is about 32 kilometres south of Brisbane and 30 kilometres north of the Gold Coast. Eagleby is often referred to as the Twin Rivers Suburb because its boundaries are the Logan and Albert Rivers.